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We deal with email addresses and website addresses (URLs) every day, but how should we render them in sentences? Stuart, a reprographics officer in Dorset, England, suggested I write on this topic. It is an excellent idea, and I am happy to offer guidance.

Here are guidelines on how to punctuate, capitalize, and divide email addresses and URLs:

When an email address or website address comes at the end of a sentence, consider whether your readers may mistakenly think that the period (full stop) at the end of the sentence is part of the address. If you think your readers may be confused, use one of these approaches:

  1. Restructure the sentence so that the address is not at the end of the sentence.
  2. Set off the address, like this, with no period (full stop):
    Please visit my website at:

The Microsoft Manual of Style for Technical Publications suggests the above approaches. However, The Chicago Manual of Style states:

"Other punctuation marks [other than the slash] used following a URL will readily be perceived as belonging to the surrounding text. It is therefore unnecessary to omit appropriate punctuation after the URL. . . ."

I admit that I used to simply omit the period (full stop) at the end of a sentence that ended with a web address. But now when I create a document online, I typically use a hyperlink with a period at the end of the sentence, which I hope is clear to all. It looks like this: Please write to me at When I believe my reader may be confused, I use the Microsoft approach.

Here are some other rules:

  1. When you refer to a website--not an address--use normal capitalization, like this:
    the TypePad website

  2. When you use a website address, do not capitalize any part of it, like these: and However, when you are citing a file at an address, do not alter any capitalization. For example, if you make the letters PDF or BBW lower case in this address, you will get an error message:

  3. Use the preposition at to introduce both email and website addresses, like this:
    You can order the lantern at

  4. In a printed work, if you must break an address at the end of a line of type, do it in one of these places:
    --After a double slash (//) or a single slash (/)
    (Note: The Gregg Reference Manual breaks before a single slash.)

    --Before a tilde (~), a dot (.), a comma, a hyphen (-), an underline (_), a question mark, an at symbol (@), a number sign (#), or a percent symbol (%), like this:

  5. Never add a hyphen to an address in order to break it at the end of a line. Just break it, like this:

  6. If a company name has an apostrophe (for example, Papa Murphy's), do not use it in the website address ( Apostrophes are not allowed in URLs.

Please let me know if you have other questions about email and website addresses. And thanks to Stuart, the reprographics officer in Dorset, who asked me to address this subject. I admire his interest in getting it right for the sake of his customers.


Other search spellings: emial, meail, adress, hypen, hyphan, capitalzation

The purpose of the parenthetical citation is to lead the reader to an exact item in the bibliography, so the first entry in the bibliography (usually author’s last name, sometimes title if no author is listed) is what is included in the parenthetical citation. Additionally, the exact point (page number) is listed.

Plagiarism is using the words, thoughts, or ideas of someone else without giving credit. Plagiarism can take many forms, and it can be intentional or accidental.

"Along with using someone’s direct words without quotation marks and attribution, plagiarism includes using someone’s thoughts or ideas and representing them as one’s own. For example, if you were to change the wording of a passage, but not credit the source, you are plagiarizing as much as if you used the original words. This presents something of a conundrum: students are required to use the research and writing of others, but such use is limited. In most research assignments, students are encouraged – or even required – to use the research of others, but proper credit must be given.

To ensure that you will give credit appropriately, begin by keeping your research materials organized. There are many note-taking systems available to assist you, but it is essential that you keep track of which ideas came from which sources. After finding good information from a reputable source, you must then integrate that information into your paper. There are several methods of doing this: quotation, paraphrase, and summary." (Talman)


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