Population Distribution In China Essay Topics

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Overpopulation in China China and overpopulation are two words that have become synonymous over the years. Overpopulation in China has become a global issue as China is the most populous country in the world and its contribution to the international community is extremely significant. However it doesnt necessarily mean that a country with a high population is an overpopulated country. To clarify the meaning of overpopulation, here is a little description. Overpopulation in a country occurs when the number of people in an area is far greater than the countrys available resources (China Studies). The Peoples Republic of China has had this problem for many years and still the government hasnt come up with an effective solution.

The Chinese government has to quickly alter its old population controlling policies because it is disturbing the countrys social and economic life, and if it continues, China could face a huge crisis in the future. Chinas population started to increase dramatically after World War II. In 1949, Mao encouraged Chinese families to have as many children as possible. This is because the government thought the population increase would bring money to the country and help China produce more food, build a better army, develop water control, and establish communication systems (Chinese Population). For the next ten years Chinas population increased in millions every year.

In 1949 the population was around 118 million, which increased to 540 million in 1960 s. In 1970 the population increased again by 290 million, making it a massive increase of 712 million in just 20 years (Issue of Overpopulation). The population increase largely depends on the fertility of a country. In the past 30 years Chinas fertility trend changed many times, making a great impact on the population increase. The fertility trend changed from about six children per woman to two children per woman. This was a result of policies introduced by the government under unfavorable social, economic, and demographic conditions (The Overpopulation Issue).

China also joined some of the western countries like U. S. A into promoting this program. Now lets look at the fertility trends introduced in China since 1949 (Chinese Economics).

Chinas fertility transition can be distributed into six main steps. The first step was called the Initial High Fertility period, which took place from 1949 to 1957. In this period Chinas fertility was high and the death rate declined making a total fertility of 6. 0 children per woman. The next period, also known as Great Leap Forward, occurred from 1958 to 1961. This period consisted of policy errors by the government and the fertility decreased from 6. 0 to 3. 3 making an increase in death rate.

The period of Post-Famine Recovery happened from 1962 to 1979. (China) This was the period in which China reached its peak and the fertility increased from 3. 3 to 7. 4. The fourth period of Rapid Fertility Decline occurred from 1971 to 1979 and in this period the fertility decreased from 7. 4 to 2. 8. From 1980 to 1989, it was the Stagnation period, the one-child policy was introduced and the fertility decreased to 2. 5. The last fertility period or Below-Replacement Fertility period which started in 1990 saw the fertility drop to 2. 1 children per woman. We can infer from these statistics that although Chinas birth rate kept increasing and decreasing the population continued to grow steadily (China). Population distribution of China is very unique in its style; if we look at it closely then we can figure out which areas of the country are contributing the most to the increasing population.

Chinas population density of 126 people per square kilometer is very high (Overpopulation). However we have to understand that China is not divided into equal parts; there arent the same number of people living in a particular area. Some regions consist of mountains, some have farms, and some are metropolitan cities. The mountainous area does not support much of the inhabitants of the country. However there is booming population in metropolitan cities (The Overpopulation Situation).

The stats basically show that China population is not proportionally distributed, some areas are have a high population density and some areas have a low population density. Now lets look at some of the interesting statistics about the countrys population distribution at present. The population density in coastal areas is around 400 people per square kilometer compared to mountainous regions of 10 people per square kilometer. The population distributed by gender is composed such as males make about 52 % and females make 48 % of the whole country. The population distribution by area is, cities have 29 % of population and the countryside consists of 71 % of the total population. The distribution of population by age is as follows, population under 14 years makes 27 %, 15 - 64 years make 67 %, and above 65 years old people make about 6 % of China (The Overpopulation Situation).

Analyzing these statistics, we can make some interesting conclusions. China doesnt have a balanced male and female proportion which could result in future problems. There are many people living in rural areas where there is not as much law enforcement as in urban areas, making it difficult for the government to force its population controlling policies. By age, at the moment, it is looking balanced as there are more people who are in the age to do jobs and make money for their young ones and old parents; however, the government still has to keep an eye on this and make sure it stays that way (China Studies).

Another major reason to eliminate the overpopulation problem is because it is hurting the countrys economy. To support such a big population the country needs more money to feed the people and to establish its new programs. However, if we see some of the benefits of overpopulation, one of them is that Chinas population attracts many other multi-national companies to set up their businesses in the most populous country. For example, industries like Coke, Motorola, and Volkswagen are big companies that make large amounts of money internationally, and they bring large finances to the country. So, this is probably the only good overpopulation does for China, financially and the country can make some money out of these famous western firms (Chinese Economics). Overpopulation also has its drawbacks in economics.

Earlier in the 1960 s it was good to have such a population increase and as the government of 1940 s predicted, the population brought finance to the country making the money available for va...


Free research essays on topics related to: square kilometer, chinas population, population density, number of people, people per square

Research essay sample on People Per Square Number Of People

Population distribution

China’s complex natural conditions have produced an unevenly distributed population. Population density varies strikingly, with the greatest contrast occurring between the eastern half of China and the lands of the west and the northwest. Exceptionally high population densities occur in the Yangtze delta, the Pearl River Delta, and on the Chengdu Plain of the western Sichuan Basin. Most of the high-density areas are coterminous with the alluvial plains on which intensive agriculture is centred.

In contrast, the isolated, extensive western and frontier regions, which are much larger than any European country, are sparsely populated. Extensive uninhabited areas include the extremely high northern part of Tibet, the sandy wastes of the central Tarim and eastern Junggar basins in Xinjiang, and the barren desert and mountains east of Lop Nur.

In the 1950s the government became increasingly aware of the importance of the frontier regions and initiated a drive for former members of the military and young intellectuals to settle there. New railways and highways were constructed to traverse the wasteland, and this has spurred population growth and the development of a number of small mining and industrial towns.

Internal migration

Great population movements have been a recurring theme throughout Chinese history. Typically, some disastrous event such as famine or political upheaval would depopulate an area already intensively cultivated, after which people in adjacent crowded regions would move in to occupy the deserted land. A peasant rebellion in Sichuan in the 1640s caused great loss of life there, and people from neighbouring Hubei and Shaanxi then entered Sichuan to fill the vacuum; this migration pattern continued until the 19th century. Three centuries later the Taiping Rebellion caused another large-scale disruption of population. Many people in the lower Yangtze valley were massacred by the opposing armies, and the survivors suffered from starvation. After the rebellion was defeated, people from Hubei, Hunan, and Henan moved into the depopulated areas of Jiangsu, Anhui, and Zhejiang, where farmland was lying abandoned and uncultivated. Similar examples include the Nian Rebellion in the Huai River region in the 1850s and ’60s, the Muslim rebellions in Shaanxi and Gansu in the 1860s and ’70s, and the great Shaanxi and Shanxifamine of 1877–78.

The most significant internal population movement in modern Chinese history was that of the Han to Manchuria (now known as the Northeast). Even before the Qing (Manchu) dynasty was established in 1644, Manchu soldiers had launched raids into North China and captured Han labourers, who were then obliged to settle in Manchuria. An imperial decree in 1668 closed the area to further Han migration, but this ban was never effectively enforced. By 1850, Han colonizing settlers had become dominant in Manchuria. The ban was later partially lifted, partly because the Manchu rulers were harassed by disturbances in China proper and partly because the Russian Empire continually tried to invade sparsely populated and thus weakly defended Manchuria. The ban was finally removed altogether in 1878, but settlement was encouraged only after 1900.

The influx of people into Manchuria was especially pronounced after 1923, and incoming farmers rapidly brought a vast area of virgin grassland under cultivation. About two-thirds of the immigrants entered Manchuria by sea, and one-third came overland. Because the region’s winter weather was so severe, migration in the early stage was highly seasonal, usually starting in February and continuing through the spring. After the autumn harvest a large proportion of the farmers returned south. As Manchuria developed into the principal industrial region of China, however, large urban centres arose there, and the nature of the migration changed. No longer was the movement primarily one of agricultural resettlement, and instead it became essentially a rural-to-urban movement of interregional magnitude.

After 1949 the new government’s efforts to foster planned migration into interior and border regions produced noticeable results. Although the total number of people involved in such migrations is not known, it has been estimated that by 1980 between one-fourth and one-third of the population of such regions and provinces as Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Heilongjiang, and Qinghai consisted of recent migrants, and migration had raised the proportion of Han in Xinjiang to about two-fifths of the total. Efforts to control the growth of large cities led to the resettlement in the countryside of some 20 million urbanites after the failure of the Great Leap Forward and of nearly the same number of urban-educated youths in the decade after 1968. However, most of these “rusticated youths” subsequently returned to the cities.

The economic reforms begun in the late 1970s have unleashed a tidal wave of both rural-to-urban and west-to-east migration, reversing trends of the previous three decades. This has further exacerbated the country’s uneven population distribution, bringing enormous influxes to the urban areas of the eastern provinces and further depleting the population in the western regions. However, tens of millions of rural people who go to the cities to find jobs also return home for periods of time during the year. These individuals have tended to group themselves according to their native area for mutual benefit, much as ethnic groups have done in other major world cities. However, the unregulated influx of so many migrants and the instability of their lives and work have put considerable strain on the host cities, notably the environment and public security.

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