Indian Culture and Tradition
Introduction: The fabric of Indian culture is woven with customs and tradition. Tradition, if followed in the right perspective can never be a hindrance to progress unless orthodoxy creeps in and a person is shackled with obstinacy.
High degree of spirituality and honor: Traditional and customary practices are an important part of Indian culture. Tradition is also an approach followed over the years and handed down from generation to generation, ensuring that it leads to a high degree of spirituality and honor.
Indians are proud of its culture. In our country it is traditional to respect elders, be truthful and honest and also to help out others in need. It is also considered traditional to celebrate our cultural festivals and religious activities with the family and neighbors. Tradition leads to the right approach to marriage and death in the family, as has been followed over centuries.
Joint Family Tradition: We still retain the tradition of joint family system in our society as part of our culture. This tradition, where the eldest in the family lays down rules, which are followed by all members of the family, is the reason that the family life is not chaotic.
Advantages of Joint Family system: A joint family system, as per tradition, has a lot of advantages. All family members are specifically delegated responsibilities which lead to sharing and no one is burdened. At the time of crisis or when in need of advice, all the family members can sit together and the final solution, as a result of this discussion, is more often than not the right one.
This traditional approach results in the younger members learning from the experience of their seniors and also respecting them due to it.
The other aspect of traditional joint family is that strength lies in numbers. Even if a family member is ill or goes out of station to work, he has the mental confidence of his family being looked after and being safe, the prime factor today.
Disintegration of Joint Families in India: One can imagine the state of affairs where each individual member of the family takes his own decision regardless of the difficulty of others. It certainly would lead to chaos and disrupt peace of mind and it is not traditional to do so.
The latter is the reason for the disintegration of joint family systems in our society and even brothers prefer to live apart after getting married.
Religious activities: Religious activities are deeply engrossed in Indian culture. These activities are lavish household affairs with everyone contributing their mite. These traditional activities result in persons learning about their heritage, religion and other spiritualities in the company of seniors. There are several rituals in any such religious functions which is difficult to understand in the right perspective and the present generation, moving away from tradition, try to be sarcastic about them. However, if tried to understand logically and learning from experience, we discover the nuances which are thoroughly scientific and meant for purification of the body and soul.
Horoscope matching for marriages: Our marriages, which are generally arranged by elders, are mostly settled on the basis of horoscopes. This is our tradition, but the logic is that people the world over believe in stars and their effect on them. Our marriages are also performed according to specific rites, which are very logical, due to which couples believe that it is a lifelong union. The percentage of separation and divorce is thus comparatively low among Indian communities.
Many Religions: In India, tradition has always been to welcome different streams of thought. This is why, Indian culture has witnessesed so many religions intermingling and prospering over the ages without bias.
Hinduism, Jainism, Islam, Buddhism, the Khalsa Panth, and Christianity, to name a few, have been in India over the centuries and it is a part of our tradition that we have not tried to enforce any specific religion on the masses. Our culture teaches tolerance and we have progressed not in spite of it but due to it.
Category: Essays, Paragraphs and Articles, Indian SocietyTagged With: Indian Culture, Tradition
India's culture is among the world's oldest; civilization in India began about 4,500 years ago. Many sources describe it as "Sa Prathama Sanskrati Vishvavara" — the first and the supreme culture in the world, according to the All World Gayatri Pariwar (AWGP) organization.
Western societies did not always see the culture of India very favorably, according to Christina De Rossi, an anthropologist at Barnet and Southgate College in London. Early anthropologists once considered culture as an evolutionary process, and "every aspect of human development was seen as driven by evolution," she told Live Science. "In this view, societies outside of Europe or North America, or societies that did not follow the European or Western way of life, were considered primitive and culturally inferior. Essentially this included all the colonized countries and people, such as African countries, India, and the Far East."
However, Indians made significant advances in architecture (Taj Mahal), mathematics (the invention of zero) and medicine (Ayurveda). Today, India is a very diverse country, with more than 1.2 billion people, according to the CIA World Factbook, making it the second most populous nation after China. Different regions have their own distinct cultures. Language, religion, food and the arts are just some of the various aspects of Indian culture.
Here is a brief overview of the culture of India.
India has 28 states and seven territories, according to the World Health Organization. There is no official language in India, according to a Gujarat High Court ruling in 2010, though Hindi is the official language of the government. The Constitution of India officially recognizes 23 official languages.
Many people living in India write in Devanagari script. In fact, it is a misconception that the majority of people in India speak Hindi. Though many people speak Hindi in India, 59 percent of India residents speak something other than Hindi, according to The Times of India. Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil and Urdu are some other languages spoken in the country.
Sanskrit, an ancient Indo-European language usually referred to in action movies, came from Northern India. How the language started has been a point of argument amongst linguists. It shares many similarities with English, French, Farsi and Russian languages. New DNA research in 2017 found that an Aryan invasion may have introduced the beginnings of Sanskrit. "People have been debating the arrival of the Indo-European languages in India for hundreds of years," said study co-author Martin Richards, an archaeogeneticist at the University of Huddersfield in England. "There's been a very long-running debate about whether the Indo-European languages were brought from migrations from outside, which is what most linguists would accept, or if they evolved indigenously." [Aryan Invasion May Have Transformed India's Bronze-Age Population]
India is identified as the birthplace of Hinduism and Buddhism, the third and fourth largest religions. About 84 percent of the population identifies as Hindu, according to the "Handbook of Research on Development and Religion," edited by Matthew Clarke (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013). There are many variations of Hinduism, and four predominant sects — Shaiva, Vaishnava, Shakteya and Smarta.
About 13 percent of Indians are Muslim, making it one of the largest Islamic nations in the world. Christians and Sikhs make up a small percentage of the population, and there are even fewer Buddhists and Jains, according to the "Handbook."
The CIA cited similar figures. According to its World Factbook, around 80 percent of the population is Hindu, 14.2 percent is Muslim, 2.3 percent is Christian, 1.7 percent is Sikh and 2 percent is unspecified.
When the Moghul Empire invaded during the sixteenth century, they left a significant mark on the Indian cuisine, according to Texas A&M University. Indian cuisine is also influenced by many other countries. It is known for its large assortment of dishes and its liberal use of herbs and spices. Cooking styles vary from region to region.
Wheat, Basmati rice and pulses with chana (Bengal gram) are important staples of the Indian diet. The food is rich with curries and spices, including ginger, coriander, cardamom, turmeric, dried hot peppers, and cinnamon, among others. Chutneys — thick condiments and spreads made from assorted fruits and vegetables such as tamarind and tomatoes and mint, cilantro and other herbs — are used generously in Indian cooking.
Many Hindus are vegetarian, but lamb and chicken are common in main dishes for non-vegetarians. The Guardian reports that between 20 percent and 40 percent of India's population is vegetarian.
Much of Indian food is eaten with fingers or bread used as utensils. There is a wide array of breads served with meals, including naan, a leavened, oven-baked flatbread; and bhatoora, a fried, fluffy flatbread common in North India and eaten with chickpea curry.
Architecture and art
The most well-known example of Indian architecture is the Taj Mahal, built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan to honor his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal. It combines elements from Islamic, Persian, Ottoman Turkish and Indian architectural styles. India also has many ancient temples.
India is well known for its film industry, which is often referred to as Bollywood. The country's movie history began in 1896 when the Lumière brothers demonstrated the art of cinema in Mumbai, according to the Golden Globes. Today, the films are known for their elaborate singing and dancing.
Indian dance, music and theater traditions span back more than 2,000 years, according to Nilima Bhadbhade, author of "Contract Law in India" (Kluwer Law International, 2010). The major classical dance traditions — Bharata Natyam, Kathak, Odissi, Manipuri, Kuchipudi, Mohiniattam and Kathakali — draw on themes from mythology and literature and have rigid presentation rules.
A study published in April 2016 in the Journal of Indian Ocean Archaeology found that some Indian horns have many similarities with horns made in Ireland. This research may suggest that the two countries may have exchanged ideas and techniques in making musical instruments during the Bronze Age. "Some horns are frankly shockingly similar, to the point where it is like witnessing time travel," study author Billy Ó Foghlú, an archaeologist and doctoral student at the Australian National University in Canberra, told Live Science. "If I were to find one of these modern Indian instruments in an Irish archaeological excavation and I didn't know what I was looking at, I would likely assume it was a Late Bronze Age Irish artifact." [Surprising Echo of Ancient Irish Horns in Indian Instruments]
Indian clothing is closely identified with the colorful silk saris worn by many of the country's women. A traditional piece of clothing for men is the dhoti, an unstitched piece of cloth that is tied around the waist and legs. Men also wear a kurta, a loose shirt that is worn about knee-length. For special occasions, men wear a sherwani or achkan, which is a long coat that with a collar having no lapel. It is buttoned up to the collar and down to the knees. A shorter version of a sherwani is called a Nehru jacket. It is named after Jawaharlal Nehru, India's prime minister from 1947 to 1964, but Nehru never wore a Nehru jacket. He preferred the achkan, according to Tehelka, an Indian newspaper. The Nehru jacket was primarily marketed to Westerners.
Customs and celebrations
Diwali is the largest and most important holiday to India, according to National Geographic. It is a five-day festival known as the festival of lights because of the lights lit during the celebration to symbolize the inner light that protects them from spiritual darkness. Holi, the festival of colors, also called the festival of love, is popular in the spring. The country also celebrates Republic Day (Jan. 26), Independence Day (Aug. 15) and Mahatma Gandhi's birthday (Oct. 2).
Additional reporting by Alina Bradford, Live Science Contributor.